In a large number of sites, there is an earthwork phase. In earthworks, the steps to be carried out are often similar and they depend largely on the nature of the soil and the area to be earthed. In any construction, expansion, landscaping or even renovation, earthworks define the durability of a structure.
1st stage of earthworks: the soil study
Depending on the nature of the work to be considered, several actions necessary for the soil study will have to be considered. Soil analysis is both geological and geotechnical. The excavator will have to determine which operations will be carried out during the earthworks according to the physical and mechanical properties of the ground to be earthed. A deep sounding carried out by a drilling machine may be essential to obtain representative samples of the chemical properties of the soil.
The seismic degree of the space to be constructed will necessarily be studied in the event that the work takes place in a risk area ... The role of the professional in charge of the diagnosis will be to list the data useful for the realization of the project, to calculate the necessary needs for foundations, use information relating to the reuse of different types of soil and draw a map differentiating each plot. Today, digital cartography makes it possible to obtain reliable and very complete surveys.
Step 2: preparing the ground
Preparing the ground means measuring precisely and establishing a boundary or staking according to the initial plan. It is necessary to bring in a surveyor at this stage of the work. It helps, among other things, to identify the zones to be dedicated to the pipes and to define exactly the different levels of a site.
The amount of this service depends on the surveyor's travel costs, the area to be limited and the specific needs depending on the work envisaged. Do not hesitate to ask for several quotes in order to choose the best offer and to check the availability of surveyors. Indeed, these professionals are in great demand in both the private and public sectors and the delays can be long.
Step 3: extraction
Extraction is the step in which the soil is removed using specific construction equipment such as a mechanical shovel and scraper or even a bulldozer and loader, useful for moving from one point to another. small volumes of soil. This step is essential for the rest of the project. The volume of soil and materials to be extracted must be precisely defined. The plots must also be very precise.
Water drainage systems
The essential step of the earthwork is the design of the water drainage system so as to limit the risks of infiltration and to avoid damage due to water stagnation. A 5% slope bounded by a concrete channel is necessary. The next phase is the installation of pipelines. Drains, gutters and manholes are installed in such a way as to guarantee water evacuation and prevent runoff. The stability of the ground is thus ensured. The risk of water infiltration into the walls of the future foundation is then reduced to a minimum. Finally, stones and gravel are placed in superimposed layers to protect drains and other drainage systems.
Stages of earthworks: disbursement
Disbursement precedes clearance. It consists in removing the topsoil until the solid layers appear. This very good quality soil is often kept for future planting or additional development. The price of this action is calculated per square meter but is generally decreasing if the area of the land to be excavated is important.
The disbursement must be carried out on a regular basis with control and know-how to obtain a very stable ground. The paths and access roads to the house will be set up in this way. The backhoe loader and the bulldozer are the two machines most often used to work the land. The groomer will then intervene to compact the soil and prepare it for laying the gravel.
6th step: excavations and trenches
It is a question here of forming the trenches where the foundations of the future construction will rest. They can be superficial, semi-deep or deep. The ground is staked and the digger knows exactly where to dig and how. The trenches, called the excavation bottom, will first accommodate the clean concrete then the concrete footing to guarantee the strength of the foundations. The channel excavations represent the foundation trenches intended to receive the concrete of cleanliness as opposed to the excavations in full mass. Their role is essential to help distribute the weight of the retaining walls on the ground.
The price of this operation varies according to the number of cubic meters excavated and can only be determined after a complete study of the project.
step 7: servicing
The next stage of earthworks during the construction of a detached house is the servicing of the land. This operation consists of bringing water, electricity, gas, telephone cables and ensuring the installation of sewer pipes. The location of cables and pipes is determined well before the start of the work and recorded on a precise plan. Whatever the type of work envisaged and to facilitate any repairs in the future, a colour is assigned to each category of the network. Finally, the septic tank is installed according to very specific standards. Its capacity and dimensions are calculated according to the number of occupants in the home.
8th and last stage of the earthworks, the backfill
Many constructions require the installation of a geotextile film before the backfill stage. This film limits the regrowth of grasses and prevents wet uplifts. Backfilling is the action that fills holes designed to bury gutters, pipes, drains and systems necessary for servicing. The restoration of the land is carried out with a laser level. At this point, the ground is flat again.
The backfill is in fact a mixture of earth and rubble kept during the excavation. It can also be made up of superimposed layers of natural materials of different thicknesses brought especially into the field for this operation. The objective is to stabilize the soil and ensure the solidity of the foundations.
Carefully terraced land is ideal for any construction site.